Cellinese, Nico , Smith, Stephen A. , Edwards, Erika , Kim, Sang-Tae , Donoghue, Michael J. .
Dating the Campanulaceae: implications for the biogeography of Cretan campanulas.
The island of Crete was once part of an Aegean landmass and represents the remnant of an old mountain system that connected the Balkans to southern Turkey. Crete became isolated during the Upper Miocene, but the Mediterranean Sea dried repeatedly, creating temporary bridges that promoted migration of biota across adjacent landmasses. During the Pliocene Crete became isolated for the last time, initially with the present mountain areas as separate islands. During the Pleistocene the sea level subsided for the last time, giving rise to the present island of Crete. There are 21 species of Campanulaceae in the Cretan area, 12 of which are endemic. A phylogeny based on 3 chloroplast genes (rbcL, atpB, and matK), shows that the Cretan taxa are not monophyletic and are instead scattered within Campanuloid clade. Likewise the endemics do not form a clade. We dated the Campanulaceae tree using a campanulaceous fossil from the early Miocene (~23 mya), as well as by setting the age of the root to 43 mya as inferred by WikstrĂ¶m et al. (2001) for the clade including Campanula and Codonopsis. Our results imply that some taxa represent the remnants of vicarance events that impacted separate lineages, while others are the product of multiple dispersal events that occurred after the last isolation.
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1 - Yale University, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Botany Division, Po Box 208118, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520-8118, USA
2 - Yale University, Department Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Po Box 208105, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520-8105, USA
3 - Brown University, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 80 Waterman Street, Providence, Rhode Island, 02912, U.S.A.
4 - Yale University, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Peabody Museum of Natural History, PO Box 208106, New Haven, CT, 06520-8106, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Topics
Location: Boulevard B/Hilton
Date: Monday, July 9th, 2007
Time: 9:30 AM