Baldwin, Bruce G. , Wagner, Warren L. .
Sherwin Carlquist’s principles of dispersal and evolution of island lineages revisited.
Sherwin Carlquist’s extensive contributions to island biology have included many general and specific principles of dispersal and evolution that have been strongly reinforced by recent investigations on the origin and diversification of insular plant lineages. For example, molecular phylogenetic and population-level data for the isolated and well-studied Hawaiian flora provide striking evidence for Carlquist’s detailed hypotheses concerning insular disharmony, long-distance dispersal, adaptive radiation, and other elements of his famous “island syndrome.” His rejection of the view that oceanic-island floras comprise a substantial diversity of true relicts, especially with regard to woody taxa, has been upheld by evidence of rapid, authochthonous diversification accompanied by major phenotypic (including ecological) change in group after group of oceanic-island plants, with woodiness and increased stature often reconstructed as secondarily derived from an ancestrally herbaceous condition, as he concluded. Carlquist’s focus on the origin and adaptive radiation of the silversword alliance (Compositae--Madiinae) has stimulated much attention to evolutionary questions in that Hawaiian lineage, with resulting findings that nicely exemplify his various principles of island biology. With increased understanding of the timing of plant diversifications on a global scale, Carlquist’s ideas on the importance of long-distance dispersal in shaping both island and continental floras have become widely embraced, as have his views on evolutionary similarities between floras of oceanic islands and of some island-like continental settings.
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1 - University of California, Berkeley, Jepson Herbarium and Department of Integrative Biology, 1001 Valley Life Sciences Building #2465, Berkeley, CA, 94720-2465, USA
2 - Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, NMNH mrc-166, Washington, D.C., 20013, United States
Presentation Type: Array
Location: Continental B/Hilton
Date: Tuesday, July 10th, 2007
Time: 10:15 AM